The Greek alphabet has twenty-four letters. (There were several more, but they dropped out of use before the classical period. In some cases their influence can still be felt, especially in verbs.) At first it is only important to learn the English name, small letters, and pronunciation. The transliterations will help. (A transliteration is the equivalent of a letter in another language. For example, the Greek "beta" [β] is transliterated with the English "b." This does not mean that a similar combination of letters in one language has the same meaning as the same combination in another. κατ does not mean "cat." But the Greek "β" and the English "b" have the same sounds and often similar functions, and therefore it is said that the English "b" is the transliteration of the Greek "beta."
In our texts today, capitals are used only for proper names, the first word in a quotation, and the first word in the paragraph. [Originally the Bible was written in all capital letters with no punctuation, accent marks, or spaces between the words. For example, John 1:1 began, ΕΝΑΡΧΗΗΝΟΛΟΓΟΣ. Capital letters, or "majuscules," were used until the later centuries A.D. when cursive script was adopted. Cursive script is like our handwriting where the letters are joined together. In Greek texts today, John 1:1 begins, ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος] There is some disagreement as to the correct pronunciation of a few of the letters; these are given at the bottom of the chart. We have chosen the standard pronunciations that will help you learn the language the easiest.